Factors of Treatment

Lung cancer is often thought of as a singular disease. In truth, lung cancer can be broken down into small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While most of the treatment methods are used for both forms, two treatments are more commonly performed on people suffering from NSCLC: targeted therapy and radiofrequency ablation.

Other factors of treatment are concerned with the individual outside of their diagnosis. These include age, sex, physical health, and genetics. Older patients may not be able to withstand aggressive treatments as well as someone younger.

Types of Treatment for Lung Cancer

A cancer specialist determines the type of treatment used by looking at the individual’s health and history. Some treatments, while potentially more curative than other options, can be too aggressive for patients more advanced in age or in poorer health. In many cases, a treatment plan will include a variety of therapies and multiple forms of treatment.

This is an icon of surgical tools.

Surgery

A primary mode of treatment, surgery is typically the first treatment considered by an oncologist treating someone’s cancer. However, it is a more aggressive treatment that isn’t always recommended if the patient is in poor health, or if it could significantly impact the quality of life.

An oncologist and surgeon will talk with the patient and assess his or her needs and health before suggesting any kind of surgery. Some procedures for SCLC and NSCLC are:

  • Lobectomy
  • Pneumonectomy
  • Segmentectomy
  • Sleeve resection

This is an icon of a chemotherapy bag used for treatment.

Chemotherapy

A category of medications, chemotherapy (chemo) has been a prominent method of treatment for cancer for decades. Chemotherapy is administered in one of two ways: systemic and intraoperative.

Systemic chemotherapy means that medication is used throughout the whole body. In this process, the chemo medication used can’t distinguish between healthy and cancerous cells and attacks the entire body. In intraoperative chemotherapy, chemo is applied directly to areas where surgeons have operated and removed tumors. Ultimately, this relieves some of the discomforts that systemic chemotherapy can cause.

Common chemotherapy medications include:

  • Cisplatin
  • Carboplatin
  • Pemetrexed
  • Vinorelbine

This is an icon of a radiation machine used for treatment.

Radiation

When treating SCLC or NSCLC, oncologists can use radiation to shrink tumors and kill cancerous cells. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT), the most common form of radiation, involves a concentrated beam to target the tumors without affecting the surrounding area. EBRT is divided into small sessions lasting only a few minutes, several times a week for several weeks (as determined by a specialist). However, newer techniques can be used and affect the number of sessions a patient goes through. These techniques include:

  • Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)
  • Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT)
  • Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT)

This is an icon of medical tools used for immunotherapy.

Immunotherapy

Generally, the negative side of traditional chemotherapy is that it cannot target cancer cells specifically. In most cases, it is administered systemically and so attacks the entire body, potentially weakening the individual who is simply trying to treat their cancer. This is where immunotherapy can help.

Immunotherapy boosts the body’s natural immune system to help fight cancer. Also, this helps patients who may not be as receptive to more aggressive treatments (such as surgery) and helps them fight their cancer in a way that is less harmful to the body.

While still considered an “emerging treatment,” immunotherapy has shown positive effects in the long term, with less hazardous side effects.


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This is an icon of a patient who is receiving targeted therapy.

Targeted Therapy

Targeted therapy uses angiogenesis inhibitors to block the growth of cancer cells. These inhibitors are administered in cases of advanced lung cancer for NSCLC. These inhibitors include:

  • Bevacizumab
  • Ramucirumab

Aside from angiogenesis inhibitors, there are other medications in targeted therapy that target mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR is responsible for cell activity, including growing and dividing. In people with NSCLC, the cancerous cells can have too much EGFR, which will, in turn, cause them to grow much faster than healthy cells in the body. Medications that inhibit cells with too much EGFR do so by looking for mutations in that gene. These medications include:

  • Afatinib
  • Dacomitinib
  • Erlotinib
  • Gefitinib
  • Osimertinib


This is an image of a patient being administered radiofrequency ablation.

Radiofrequency Ablation

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can be used either in a curative or palliative way. RFA is especially useful for individuals who may need to avoid aggressive surgery.

For the procedure, surgeons, guided by a CT scan, will insert a needle-like probe through the skin and into the tip of the tumor. Then, an electric current is used to heat the probe and the tumor, destroying the cancerous cells.

This is an illustration of a patient who has been treated with palliative care.

Palliative Care

While the above forms of treatment are primarily used as curative therapies, there are times when oncologists and surgeons use them as palliative care. Palliative care is any treatment that is used to relieve symptoms of lung cancer or side effects of its treatment.

This can mean using radiation to shrink tumors that may be causing discomfort or even surgery to alleviate the pain of complications, like pleural effusion.

This is an icon of medical supplies used during a clinical trial.

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are special rounds of medication and combination therapies that have yet to be approved by the FDA and, sometimes, not yet tested on humans. While these treatments can have promising results, not every individual may qualify.

Before looking for a clinical trial, a person with lung cancer needs to consult their oncologist to see if clinical trials are right for their prognosis. If an oncologist approves it, the individual will go through an interview process to learn if they are the right fit for the trial.

Factors that can determine if someone is a right fit for a trial can include:

  • Age
  • Sex
  • Family history
  • Personal medical history
  • Current medications

After Treatment

It is essential for people who survive lung cancer to check up with their doctor regularly. Lung cancer survivors could be at a higher risk of developing a new disease or second cancer.

Survivors of SCLC and NSCLC are most at risk of developing the other form. Other cancers they are likely to develop include:

  • Esophageal cancer
  • Larynx cancer
  • Mouth or throat cancer
  • Thyroid cancer

It is also possible, though less likely, that they could develop cancer in a different part of the body (such as the stomach, colon, and pancreas). Regular screenings and early detection are critical for any cancer survivor.

If you have gone into remission, talk with your doctor about your chances of developing a second cancer.

Affording Hospital Bills

Unfortunately, cancer treatment can be costly and, even with insurance, many people going through it are left with insurmountable debt. However, there are times when a person’s lung cancer isn’t something that has happened to them by accident, but by the negligence of another party or company.

If you, or someone you love, has been diagnosed with lung cancer, then it’s possible that you could be eligible for legal compensation. Reach out to an attorney that specializes in lung cancer cases to learn if you are eligible.